River, floods and management
The drainage basin hydrological cycle: the water balance.
Factors affecting river discharge: the storm hydrograph.
The long profile – changing processes: types of erosion, transportation and deposition, types of load; the Hjulstrom curve.
Valley profiles – long profile and changing cross profile downstream, graded profile, potential and kinetic energy.
Changing channel characteristics – cross profile, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, roughness, efficiency, and links to velocity and discharge.
Landforms of fluvial erosion and deposition – potholes, rapids, waterfalls, gorges, meanders, braiding, levees, flood plains and deltas.
Process and impact of rejuvenation – knick points, waterfalls, river terraces and incised meanders.
Magnitude-frequency analysis of flood risk.
Physical and human causes of flooding – two case studies of recent flooding events should be undertaken from contrasting areas of the world.
Impact of flooding – two case studies of recent flooding events should be undertaken from contrasting areas of the world.
Flood management strategies – to include hard engineering – dams, straightening, building up of levees, diversion spillways, and soft engineering – forecasts and warnings, land use management on floodplain, wetland and river bank conservation and river restoration.