## Presentational TECHNEQUES

__- To access the Google Drive Folders containing task sheets and resources for each topic within Graphical Skills webpage click on the following section titles; Examination Questions & Presentational Techniques.__

**The Resources**Geographical skills website - click here.

__- The image below shows which skills are specifically mentioned in the A2 specification. The examiner can only ask direct questions about the skills mentioned in the specification. Sometimes the examiner will use the word 'presentational techniques'. This means that both graphical and cartographical techniques can be used in the answer.__

**Presentation Skills**

**- The first PowerPoints below lists the appropriate use, advantages and disadvantages of different presentation skills. The second looks at how to answer different types of examination questions from section 2 of the 4A examination paper.**

__PowerPoints__

**- The questions below are typical questions that test you knowledge and understanding of different presentational techniques.**

__Typical Questions__

**- This section gives some examples of different graphical techniques that can be used. Look at the individual graphs - can you explain why the graph has been used, what it is showing, its advantages and disadvantages and how it has improved your geographical understanding.**

__Graphical Skills__

**Line graphs - simple, comparative, compound and divergent -**Simple line graphs are used for showing the relationship between two variables. One of these variables is usually time but they can also show other factors. For example, the relationship between temperature and altitude.

A comparative line graph is used to compare two sets of data on the same axis, such as comparing two separate rivers discharge throughout the course of a year.

On a compound line graph, the differences between the points on adjacent lines give the actual values. To show this, the areas between the lines are usually shaded or coloured and there is an accompanying key.

**Bar graphs - simple, comparative, compound and divergent**

**Scattergraph and best fit line**- Scattergraphs are used to investigate the type and strength of a relationship between two variables (or aspects) for a set of paired data. The pattern of the scatter describes the relationship as shown in the examples below. Best-fit or trend lines should follow the general trend of the graph.

Pie charts and proportional divided circles

**Triangular graphs**- They are graphs with three axis instead of two, taking the form of an equilateral triangle. The important features are that each axis is divided into 100, representing percentage. From each axis lines are drawn at an angle of 60 degrees to carry the values across the graph. The data used must be in the form of three components. They are useful when identifying change over time, as a position changes.

**Radial Graphs -**These are particularly useful when one variable is a directional feature, for example wind-rose diagrams show both the direction and the frequency of winds. The circumference represents the compass directions and the radius can be scaled to show the percentage of time that winds blow from each direction. They are also useful when showing data over a 24 hour period of time or over a 12 month period.

**Logarithmic graphs**are used for plotting rates of change. They are different from normal graphs because the scale(s) are not spaced evenly. In this example comparing the output of two factories the y axis numbers are 1, 10, 100, 1000.

**Dispersion graphs**- They are used to display the main pattern in the distribution of data. The graph shows each value plotted as an individual point against a vertical scale. It shows the range of data and the distribution of each piece of data within that range. It therefore enables comparison of the degree of bunching of two sets of data. They are useful in presenting where the UQ and LQ is, as well as the mean, median, mode and extreme values and interquartile range.

**Kite diagrams**- They are used to see trends in statistics in a visual way. These show the change of a percentage over distance.The central line for each diagram has a value of 0. The ‘kite’ is then drawn symmetrically both above and below the line to represent your data. For example, you can use kite diagrams to compare the distribution of plant species along a coastline.

**- This section gives some examples of different graphical techniques that can be used. Look at the individual graphs - can you explain why the graph has been used, what it is showing, its advantages and disadvantages and how it has improved your geographical understanding.**

__Cartographical Techniques__

Isoline Maps